Tag Archives: earth

How could there be days in Genesis when the sun was not created until the fourth day?

Genesis 1:14-18: “And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so.  God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars.  God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good.”

At the end of each day of the creation, we read the phrase “evening and morning, the first/second/third/fourth/fifth/or sixth day.”  Today we think of day as being the full rotation of the earth.  We measure it by the rising and setting of the sun.  We know, of course, that the sun does not rise or set, but it appears to be doing so based on our view here from the earth.  If there was no sun, we would still have the earth’s rotation.  Rotation, not daylight, is the measure of a day.  Moreover, before the sun was created on the 4th day, there was still a source of light.  In Genesis 1:3, God said “Let there be light.”  This was a physical light, not something metaphorical.  We do not fully know where this source of light came from, but we do know light was there.  Some say the source of light was from God himself because God is light (1 John 1:5).  We do not need light to define the length of a day; we only need the earth’s rotation.

What does the word “replenish” mean in Genesis?

“And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the Earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the Earth.” Gen 1:28 (KJV).

This verse in the King James Version is used to support the Gap Theory because it uses the word “replenish.”  We know that today the word “replenish” means to “fill up again.”  Most words starting with the prefix “re” mean to do something again.  But has this always been the case? 


Source: Answers in Genesis


Language does change over time.  Compare today’s English with Old English, and you will see a vast array of changes.  According to the Oxford Dictionary, between the years of 1300 and 1700 during which time the KJV was written (1611), the word “replenish” meant to “fill up” as in “to fill something up one time or for the first time.”  It wasn’t until centuries later that the prefix “re” began to mean “again.”  You can look up the Hebrew word male, which is translated to “replenish” in the Strong’s Concordance (#4390).  Replenish, at the time of the KJV, did not mean to fill up again, but to fill up for the first time.  Therefore, this word cannot be used to support the Gap Theory.

What is the Gap Theory?

During the Age of Enlightenment, a theory made popular by a Scottish theologian named Thomas Chalmers.  The Gap Theory was formed to help make sense of the supposed millions of years of Earth’s existence while also believing in the Bible.  The Gap Theory proposes that in between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2 there are millions or billions of years of unrecorded history.  During this time, there was an event called “Lucifer’s Flood” where Satan and 1/3 of the angels fell from heaven after an act of rebellion.  During that flood, the waters caused catastrophic damage to the Earth thus resulting in the geological formations we see today. Also during this time, the dinosaurs were buried and fossilized in the sedimentary rock.


The Gap Theory forces millions of years in-between the first two verses (Source: Answers in Genesis)


This theory helps explain why the Earth looks like it is millions of years old, but there is no biblical basis for the theory.  Those who created it were adding to the Bible to accommodate for the leading old-earth paradigm at the time.  The Christians did not want to look foolish for ignoring scientific theories, so the Gap Theory and others like Theistic Evolution and Progressive Creationism were created to accommodate for the secular theories.  There are theological problems with believing in an old earth and death before sin. 

What are the problems with believing in millions of years?

“Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned.”  Romans 5:12.  


Source: Answers in Genesis


Death and suffering is a result of sin.  In the fossil record we find bones with diseases and cancer.  If the fossil record shows millions of years of Earth history before the creation and fall of man, then what caused those animals in the fossil record to die and have diseases?  The fossil record is a result of God’s judgment of sin.  These things logically could not have happened until after Adam’s sin.  This is one of the major problems with Theistic Evolution and Progressive Creationism in that these two alternative views allow for suffering and death before Adam’s sin.  This is opposite to what the Bible tells us about sin, suffering, and death.   If Adam’s sin did not bring death and curse onto the Earth, then what did bring it?

Why are all of the genealogies listed in the Bible?

The genealogies in Genesis Chapters 5, 10, and 11 may be boring to read, but they are very important in understanding population growth and Jesus’ family tree.  In the Gospels of Matthew and Luke you will see that Jesus was a direct descendant of Adam.   You can also use the genealogies to calculate the age of the Earth according to the Bible.  To begin, we know that there were 6 literal days during the Creation Week.  When Adam was 130 years old, he fathered his son Seth.  That was after 130 years of earth history.  When Seth was 105 years old, he fathered his son Enos.  Add 130 to 105 and you get a total of 235 years of earth history.  When Enos was 90 years old, he fathered his son Cainana.  Add 235 to 90 and you get 325 years of earth history.  Continue on in this formula and that is how the young earth age is calculated.  For a continuation of this topic see the article “How old is the Earth according to the Bible?”


Bible history timeline (Source: Answers in Genesis)
Bible history timeline (Source: Answers in Genesis)
Bible history timeline (Source: Answers in Genesis)


What are some evidences for a young Earth?

Here are a few of the evidences for a young Earth:

Earth has a magnetic field that has gradually been decaying.  Since 1835, it has decreased by 14%.  If we go by the uniformitarian concept, then just 7,000 years ago the magnetic field would have been 32 times stronger, and 1 million years ago it would have had such a powerful force that everything, including itself, would have been vaporized.  Clearly, the magnetic field could not have been in existence for millions of years.

The moon has been receding from the Earth at a rate of 4 centimeters per year.  Again, using the uniformitarian concept, just 20,000 years ago the moon would have been so close to the Earth that it would have fallen into our planet.  The moon therefore cannot be over 10,000 years old.

Using the uniformitarian concept where the ocean is billions of years old, it should have 60 to 100 miles of sediment at the ocean floor, but on average the floor is only about ½ miles thick.

Civilization is our last example. The oldest historical records date back to 3500 B.C.  The oldest writings are found on Sumerian tablets dated at 3500 B.C.  Records of ancient languages are never dated beyond 3000 B.C.  Using population growth statistics, we could have reached our current rate of population in just 3200 years.  However, if man has been in existence for millions of years, we would have an overwhelming population of humans today and the Earth would be uncomfortably crowded.

RTG recommends this article from Dr. Johnathan Sarfati regarding flaws in the evolutionary understanding of earth processes and dating methods, as well as more evidence for a young earth.  Included at the bottom of the article are two related videos.  (Note: after clicking the following link, you will be taken to an introduction video.  After it plays, or if you choose to close out that video, you can then view the article.)  


Source: Answers in Genesis


More information can be found at:

http://www.answersingenesis.org/contents/379/aid/v6/YEC-summary-defense.pdf   and


How old is the Earth according to the Bible?

The age of the Earth is important to know, and we can calculate the age by using the Bible.  Generally speaking, from Adam to Abraham, there was a time span of about 2,000 years.  From Abraham to Jesus, there was another 2,000 years.  Finally, from Jesus’ birth to the present, we have another 2,000 years.  Adding all of these times together equals to 6,000 years of Earth history (granted, this is not the exact age).

We know that there were 7 literal days during the week of Creation.  If we count the genealogies  in Genesis Chapters 5 and 11 along with other historical events from the Old Testament, we can calculate the age of the Earth to be between 6,000 and 10,000 years old.  There are some discrepancies with ages based on different manuscripts, thus there is a 4,000 year range between the estimated age of the earth, but none of these discrepancies would ever allow for the age to be hundreds of thousands or millions of years old.    Please see the following article for more information: “What are the problems with believing in millions of years?”

Does 2 Peter 3:8 Mean the Earth is Old?

“But do not overlook this one fact, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” 2 Peter 3:8

Some use this verse to explain that the days in Genesis were long periods of time, not literal 24-hour days.  This verse, however, is not at all talking about the length of time during the Creation week.  It is in reference to Psalm 90:4 “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.”   The context in this verse is that of Jesus’ followers asking Peter when Jesus would return.  Scoffers at the time were mocking Christians because they were awaiting Jesus’ return, yet he had not returned.  Peter explained to the followers that God is outside of time as we understand it.  A day to God is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day.  In other words, the verse cancels itself out in regards to explaining and understanding time.

Imagine you watching a parade.  You may be at the beginning, middle, end, or somewhere in between.  You are in one place seeing only part of the parade.  Imagine God in a helicopter above you, getting a bird’s eye view of the entire parade at one time.  God is outside of time and space as we understand it.  

How old is the Earth according to evolutionists?

Those who hold to the Big Bang Theory and uniformitarianism say that the Big Bang started between 13 and 20 billion years ago.  Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago.  One thing to remember when discussing evolution is that long periods of time are necessary in order for the organisms to have enough time to change from the single-celled to modern man.  Another reason some hold to the old-earth view is because they reject the worldwide, catastrophic flood that completely altered earth’s appearance.  The geologic column is used to measure the age of the Earth, but this column is only theoretical and based on uniformitarianism.


Secular history of universe, earth, and evolution of life (Source: Answers in Genesis)


Where did the idea of an old Earth come from?

Prior to 1750, prominent geologists like Niels Steensen concluded that sedimentary rocks were laid down by Noah’s Flood and that the Earth was roughly 6,000 years old.  Others at that time supported his conclusion.  In the later decades of the 18th century (remember this was during the Age of Enlightenment where people started to doubt the Bible), some French and Italian geologists rejected the global flood and stated that the sedimentary rock layers were created over long periods of time and caused by natural processes.  Other scientists formed views that Earth has experienced catastrophic events during the millions of years in Earth’s past before man was created.

James Hutton (1790s) and Charles Lyell (1820s) were both influential people of their time who wanted to provide evidence to show that slow and gradual processes occurred over long periods of time.  They also wanted to take the science away from the Bible and make it look like it is full of errors.  Charles Lyell published Principles of Geology where he proposed uniformitarianism, thus rejecting continental and global catastrophic floods.  His three volume book was very influential in destroying the ideas of a young Earth, and he even stated that his goal was to take geology away from Moses.  By the end of the 19th century, the age of the Earth was considered by all geologists to be in the hundreds of millions of years.  Over the course of the 20th century, that age increased to 4.5 billion years.

RTG recommends the following book to for more information about the falling away from young-earth views: The Great Turning Point 

This article summarizes the historical change from young-earth to old-earth: http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/bios/Scriptural_geologists.asp