Eve is the mother of all human beings. God cursed her and her offspring by increasing the pain she would experience during childbirth. Also, God created division between husband and wife, where the wife would want to rule over the husband, but the husband would be the one ruling over her instead. This does not mean, though, that the wife would be a submissive slave. The husband is to love his wife like Christ loves the church (his followers). The husband is to be willing to make sacrifices and love her unconditionally. This curse on Eve is similar to the theological term of Federal Headship.
After the fall, Adam was cursed by making his work more difficult. Adam was in charge of growing crops for food, and as implied by the text, prior to the Fall it was not a difficult task. The curse resulted in the work being more difficult because thorns and thistles started to grow. You can imagine Adam sticking his hand down and getting stuck by a painful thorn. He also had to work by the sweat of his brow, implying that the heat would make it more difficult for him, such as causing him to become fatigued and have to rest, thus slowing down his progress.