Natural selection was ruled out as the “engine” for evolution, so Darwinists tried to find evidence that mutations would be the engine. In order to prove that mutations developed new species, experiments were done on fruit flies. This species, the Drosophila melanogaster, was used because they bred rapidly, reached maturity in 12 days, had easy to observe characteristics, and had only a few chromosomes. Countless millions of fruit flies were zapped with radiation in hopes of creating a new species, but despite the millions of flies that were experimented on, not one fly “evolved” into a new species. Four hundred mutations were created from the radiation experiments, but none of the characteristics formed a new species. Instead, many of the flies developed negative side-effects from the harmful radiation, such as reduced body size or inoperable wings. This proved instead that mutations are usually harmful and rarely beneficial.